### The Speaker

We went to a lecture the other
week (September 28, 2017) about developments in quantum computing, put on by
the University of Alberta, for the Physics and Research Symposium and Public
Outreach program. The lecture was given
by Dr. Emile Hoskinson, an experimental physicist at D-Wave Systems (located in
Burnaby, British Columbia, near Vancouver), and thus focussed on that
corporation’s “spin” (no quantum mechanics pun intended) on quantum computing. Dr. Hoskinson did his undergrad at UBC, and
his PhD at Berkeley. He went to high school just down way from the U of A,
though, at Archbishop MacDonald High School, so he had a local connection.

He described his job as “to
design, process, test, calibrate, and run experiments to evaluate performance
of the D-Wave supercomputers”. He also
described his workplace as “one of the coolest places there is”, a riff on the
fact that quantum computing is just plain cool, in the vernacular sense of the
term, and that the process itself operates at near absolute zero, for reasons
described below.

I should note that the talk was pitched at a general audience, so he intended it to be understandable, yet not dumbed down. I think he succeeded in that objective, and I sensed that the audience would agree with that. He also did a physics colloquium during his visit – presumably that was a more technical presentation.

I should note that the talk was pitched at a general audience, so he intended it to be understandable, yet not dumbed down. I think he succeeded in that objective, and I sensed that the audience would agree with that. He also did a physics colloquium during his visit – presumably that was a more technical presentation.

I should also note that the
public talk didn’t go into quantum theory in any depth – quantum tunnelling and
superpositions were the main aspects of quantum theory that were touched
upon. So, it no doubt helped to have had
some acquaintance with quantum theory, to get a better handle on the talk. I have some background – basically lots of
reading, and what mathematical/technical understanding that an undergrad in
physics will confer. But, obviously, to
understand the technology at a deeper level would require a significant
immersion in the subject. The D-Wave
site has plenty of description and documentation that the interested reader can
peruse.

### Quantum Computing Progress

There are several approaches
to using quantum phenomena for computing, and D-Wave specializes in one
particular approach, but more about that a bit further on. It should be noted that the D-Wave approach
has both academic and commercial aspects.
On the commercial side, buyers have included such outfits as NASA,
Google and Lockheed Martin, and some 150 patents have been filed. On the academic side, there have been some 90
peer reviewed papers written, relating to the technology.

D-Wave One, their first commercial
quantum computer was released in 2010; it had 128 Qbits of quantum processing
capacity. D-Wave 200Q is the most recent
release, in 2017; it has 2000 Qbits of capacity. The capacity of these computers has followed
“Moore’s Law” like trajectory, with the number of Qbits increasing from 4 in
2004 (early research) to about 10,000 in 2018 (20,000 is possible in the next
release).

Here’s my graph of that, from some things said
during the talk (note that it is not official by any means, and I only have 4
data points). I make the doubling time
to be about 1.25 years.

I should note that a Qbit is something like a “bit” in regular computing. However, where a regular bit can be in two states (and thus naturally leads to binary Boolean logic), a Qbit can exist in State 0 (off), State 1 (on) or a superposition of the two. You can now meditate upon Schrodinger’s Cat, to consider the ramifications of such a device. Plus, think a bit about quantum tunnelling. As will be explained a bit later (to the extent it can be explained), quantum tunnelling is probably the key phenomenon that D-Wave’s make use of.

I should note that a Qbit is something like a “bit” in regular computing. However, where a regular bit can be in two states (and thus naturally leads to binary Boolean logic), a Qbit can exist in State 0 (off), State 1 (on) or a superposition of the two. You can now meditate upon Schrodinger’s Cat, to consider the ramifications of such a device. Plus, think a bit about quantum tunnelling. As will be explained a bit later (to the extent it can be explained), quantum tunnelling is probably the key phenomenon that D-Wave’s make use of.

### The Quantum Computer

So, what is a quantum
computer, as operationalized by D-Wave?
Visually, as he demonstrated in his presentation, it looks pretty much
like a big black box.

**The Black Box**

The black box has two main purposes:

- It acts as a Faraday Cage, keeping stray electromagnetic signals away from the quantum chip, which does the quantum part of quantum computing. Stray signals can interfere with the delicate process of maintaining quantum superpositions, which, of course, is the key to a quantum computer’s advantage over regular computing.

- It contains the hardware necessary to produce the low temperatures at which the quantum chip operates. Again, this has to do with maintaining a quantum superposition state for useful lengths of time – thermal agitation at the molecular level (i.e. heat) will also interfere with this.

- The operating temperatures for the quantum chip are about 15 milli-Kelvins, or about 15 thousands of a Celsius degree above absolute zero.

- The computer’s temperature is lowered via multiple stages, with each stage dropping the temperature more and more. The final stage contains the quantum chip.

**Fridge Wiring**

The quantum chip looks pretty
normal, somewhat like a GPU processer used in graphics applications. It actually is based on small, but still
macroscopic devices which create superconducting current loops. Thus, the need for near absolute zero
temperatures. The current can flow in
either of the two directions around the loop, creating a digital one or
zero. But it can also quantum tunnel
between these states, which is the key to quantum computing, of course. The direction and amplitude of the current in
these loops is altered by applying a magnetic bias to the loop. In this respect it sounded to me somewhat
like “core” memory in the old mainframes of the past era, but with a
superconducting quantum twist to it.

**Quantum Chip**

Note that the computer also
has a conventional front end, as well as the quantum chip back end. The quantum computer, as realized with this
technology is only productive for certain types of problems, that it is
optimized for. These tend to be
algorithms that don’t scale up to huge sizes well.

### Quantum Computer Applications

An example given was essentially as sort of permutation problem, which has a huge search space as it is scaled up. Finding the most efficient solution to a logistical problem or a consumer preference optimization might come to mind – problems in finding correlations in genetics were another example mentioned.

Suppose one was searching for
an optimal solution to such a permutation problem. Normally, finding the global minimum in such
a search space would soon get out of hand, as the problem would grow
exponentially as it is scaled up.

But, with clever design of the
quantum chip, the chip can be made in such a way that it mimics the physical or
conceptual problem. The chip can then
quantum tunnel to get out of a local minimum, which can be a huge problem in
conventional computing, requiring computing time and resources that are not
practical (it sounds like a gradient descent problem, a key aspect of many AI
algorithms). However, the quantum chip
will evolve to a ground state solution, via quantum mechanics. If the chip has been designed to mimic the
physical problem, this can give the solution to the problem.

Note that this can involve a
lot of custom design of the chip, to fit the specified problem. Obviously, not all interesting and useful
problems in computing can be solved via this technology. More general purpose quantum computers are
being explored, though they are still in the early stages.

In some ways, the D-Wave quantum computer reminded me of analogue computers, in the sense that the hardware is built to mimic a physical problem of interest. In the past, if I recall correctly, this was a method for solving differential equations. Basically, one designed a circuit that corresponded to a particular differential equation, and solved the equation via analysis of the corresponding circuit’s behaviour.

In some ways, the D-Wave quantum computer reminded me of analogue computers, in the sense that the hardware is built to mimic a physical problem of interest. In the past, if I recall correctly, this was a method for solving differential equations. Basically, one designed a circuit that corresponded to a particular differential equation, and solved the equation via analysis of the corresponding circuit’s behaviour.

### Richard Feynman on Quantum Computing

Dr. Hoskinson noted that Richard Feynman once said about the possibilities of quantum computing:

And
I'm not happy with all the analyses that go with just the classical theory,
because nature isn't classical, dammit, and if you want to make a simulation of
nature, you'd better make it quantum mechanical, and by golly it's a wonderful
problem, because it doesn't look so easy.

International
Journal of Theoretical Physics, VoL 21, Nos. 6/7, 1982 Simulating Physics with
Computers Richard P. Feynman

This is pretty mind bending
stuff, so I would also add that he once quoted as saying:

"If you think you understand quantum
mechanics, you don't understand quantum mechanics."

I think many of us can agree with him on that point, and that goes double for understanding quantum computers. Nonetheless, the lecture was very informative, entertaining and engaging.

Sources:

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Now
that you have read of some cutting edge science, you should consider reading
some Science Fiction. How about a short
story, set in the Arctic, with some alien and/or paranormal aspects. Only 99 cents on Amazon.

### The Magnetic Anomaly: A Science Fiction Story

“A geophysical crew went into
the Canadian north. There were some regrettable accidents among a few ex-military
who had become geophysical contractors after their service in the forces. A
young man and young woman went temporarily mad from the stress of seeing that.
They imagined things, terrible things. But both are known to have vivid
imaginations; we have childhood records to verify that. It was all very sad.
That’s the official story.”

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